There are many steps in the daily maintenance of the vehicle. In fact, the owner can do it on his own, such as checking tire grinding. It is easy, quick, easy and economical to do your own work. With a little simple technology and basic tools, smart drivers can do the basic maintenance on their own.
Here, there areBritish CarMagazine Autoexpress introduces some of the most direct and practical techniques for car maintenance to make your car safe and efficient. Each skill is rated with a difficulty factor of up to five stars. Take a moment and have some simple tools to help you get these skills started quickly.
Some of the sections listed below are highly specific, so when purchasing parts, please inform the parts distributor or major distributor of the brand, model number, engine type and purchase time of your favorite car to ensure that the parts are appropriate. In addition, the car number plate is useful.
Because of the difficulty, we do not mention here how to change the oil. Leave it to an expert to save trouble and dirty cars!
Also, if you can't figure out something, call your local repair facility or dealer and they'll be happy to help.
1. Tires wear difficulty index: ★☆☆☆☆
Ensuring good tyre usage is the most important thing you can do in maintenance. Fortunately, it is also the simplest. Road traffic law recommends that owners check tyre pressure once a week. You can also check the tire wear and other basic conditions in the inspection.
When checking tire pressure, find the tire pressure chart, usually in the door, tank cap or vehicle user manual, to indicate the standard range of tire pressure and to determine if the load is too heavy.
Because of the thermal expansion and contraction, you need to measure the tires more accurately after they have cooled down. Remove the dust cap from the tyre valve and press the valve interface of the tyre pressure gauge against the tyre valve to check the tyre pressure. These things can be done in parts stores all over the country, but you can also use a pressure gauge on a tire pedal pump or on the air line at a filling station.
The pressure gauge will show the tyre pressure. If the tyre pressure is too low, fill the tyre with an air pump to a reasonable value.
As you measure the values, you can also look at the grooves and tread scratches. If youdiscoveredthere are nails in the tread and do not pull them out because they can cause air loss. Conversely, slowing down, finding a tire repairer or going to a dealer can repair some damage at a low price, but depending on where the nail is located, sometimes you have to change a new tire.
Finally, check the tread depth. You can use a tread depth gauge, which is also inexpensive and available in most parts stores. It is also possible to use a 20 pound coin with an outer edge approximately 3 mm thick, the minimum recommended depth of the tread.
Insert the coin into the tread and if the outer edge of the coin is visible, a new tyre will be required. The same principle applies to depth gauges, except that the readings are more accurate. At the same time, don't forget to check the tread width by selecting several points.
The road traffic law stipulates that a tread depth of at least 1.6 mm is required for three-quarters of the total tread.
2. Lamp difficulty index: ★★★☆☆
Although the difficulty rating of this maintenance is three stars, it actually depends on the situation. Some cars may be finished in two minutes, others may take two hours, and sometimes their fingers can be worn out. Compared with modern models,modernmodelthe maintenance of old car lights is usually easier, while modern models are generally difficult to reach the inside of the headlights. But for sellers, this is a piece of cake.
Most headlight bulbs are secured by metal clips in the lampshade. Once the lampshade and base are removed, and then the clip is removed, the bulb can slide out. Remove the bulb and slide the new bulb in. Be careful not to touch the glass. Connect the base, put back the metal clip and lampshade, and then you can try the new lamp.
Master ten skills and learn to do car maintenance by yourself The tail lamp is generally easier to maintain because it is easier to disassemble and assemble. Before opening the bulb holder, you need to open the interior trim panel of the car trunk. In most cases, one bracket supports multiple bulbs. Most tail light bulbs use snap on devices, so you need to gently press the bulb and rotate it, which is a bit like a child proof medicine bottle. Then press the bulb in the reverse order.
3. Difficulty index of windshield washer fluid: ★☆☆☆☆
This maintenance is too simple. First, find the windshield washer fluid tank, which is usually located under the front hood and has a cleaning nozzle logo. The tank cover is usually a snap in type. If what you find is a screw, you're looking for the wrong one. Please check the manual for confirmation.
After opening the cover, fill the washing liquid with the help of a funnel. Special detergent is better than ordinary water and the mixture of water and detergent, because it has good antifreeze and cleaning effect. You can also choose mixed liquid or concentrated liquid (it needs to be mixed with water).
Fill the reservoir and close the lid.
4. Antifreeze difficulty index: ★★★☆☆
The function of antifreeze is to prevent the engine water tank from freezing. It is also called coolant, because it can take away the excess heat energy generated by the engine during operation, so that the engine can run at normal operating temperature, and avoid you being trapped in the vast steam by the roadside. So don't just use water as antifreeze.
The coolant reservoir is located under the engine cover with a recognizable warning sticker on it. But it's better to check the manual to make sure it's correct. Before opening the cover, please make sure that the engine is in a cool state to avoid the rapid heating and rapid ejection of refrigerant.
After ensuring that the engine is cold and the car is parked on the flat ground, determine the liquid capacity in the tank according to the numerical line, which cannot be lower than or higher than the extreme value.
The anti boiling and anti freezing effect of antifreeze is not permanent, so it needs to be replaced every few years. The coolant tester in the parts store can help you measure the relevant data to decide whether it needs to be replaced.
There are also many kinds of antifreeze available, so it is best to buy suitable products according to the manual and the recommendations of the seller. But no matter which product you choose, you need to add appropriate water according to the coldest weather. In Britain, most cars are mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1. Even so, it's better to make a decision according to the manual and professional advice.
Finally, open the reservoir and fill it with liquid. It is best to use a funnel to prevent the liquid from leaking out and damaging the paint.
5. Check the oil difficulty index: ★☆☆☆
It is also easy to check the oil, but in order to measure accurately, it is also necessary to make sure that the engine is cold and park the car in a flat place. After determining the position, insert the dipstick (the handle is usually yellow or orange) into the engine.
Pull out the dipstick and wipe it dry with rolled paper. Be careful not to drip oil. Repeat the operation again, and then take it out again. At this time, the oil stops somewhere between the minimum and maximum values. If it is at the maximum or close to the maximum, everything is good.
6. Difficulty index of replenishing engine oil: ★★☆☆
If the dipstick shows that your oil is near the minimum value, then you have to add some oil. In order to avoid engine damage and warranty failure, you have to choose the right grade of oil. This is written in the manual, and the dealer will also tell you relevant information.
The oil grade is usually expressed in the form of numbers and letters, such as 10W-30, synthetic oil and non synthetic oil.
When the engine is cold, find the oil cap (there is an oil pot logo on the top of the engine). It is best to clean the surrounding dust and debris before opening the cover to avoid falling into the engine.
After opening the cover, use a funnel to slowly pour the oil into the engine. Wait a moment before measuring the depth with the dipstick. The value should be less than the maximum value. Add more if necessary, but don't fill it too full. Take out the upper cover of the rear cover of the dipstick and wipe off the dripping oil.
7. Difficulty index of air filter: ★★☆☆
Air filter plays a great role. It can filter out dust and debris in the air and protect the engine, so its cleaning and maintenance are also very important. Most of the filters are set in the plastic box on the side of the engine. To open the top of the bellows, you need to untie some metal clips or screws. The air filter is generally yellow with orange edges. Take out the filter and put in a new filter after noting the placement direction. Finally, close the cover and install the metal clip.
8. Difficulty coefficient of spark plug: ★★★★★
The importance of spark plugs is self-evident. The spark it produces can ignite the fuel in the engine, so it must be well maintained. However, because it ignites sparks in the engine, it will produce black deposits in the long run, so it needs to be replaced every few years.
Spark plugs are different, so consult the seller or parts store before buying. Its replacement varies from car to car, but no matter what system your car is, you should ensure that the engine is cold before replacement, and only change one spark plug at a time.
Many modern cars use plastic wrapped ignition coils attached to the top of the engine. You can also ask the seller about its location. We can remove the fastening bolts with a socket wrench, then untie the harness and gently remove the coil.
In the construction of old cars, each spark plug is connected with an ignition wire (also known as HT ignition wire), which needs to be removed each time.
Finally, carefully unscrew the spark plug puller from the engine. If you can't rotate, don't force it to avoid damaging the engine. At this time, you should seek professional help.
Remove the old spark plug, apply a little copper oil on the thread of the new spark plug and screw it in place. Similarly, do not force it. After completion, install the fuse or coil.
It is worth mentioning that in some models, it is easy to replace spark plugs, but in others, it is difficult to disassemble. Sometimes it's really troublesome, so you'd better look for a repair shop at this time.
9. Difficulty coefficient of car washing: ★☆☆☆
Never thought that washing the car is also a kind of car maintenance? But it is true. Car washing can clean dirt and bird droppings. Especially in winter, it can also wash off the residual road snow salt on the car. Salt will corrode car paint and cause rust.
Manual car washing is generally considered to be the mildest way of car washing, because automatic car washing and spray washing will scratch the car surface and cause paint peeling. There are many car cleaning fluids we can choose from, and those are better than household cleaning agents, because many of the latter contain salt.
Prepare a soft cloth and a bucket of warm soapy water, and scrub the car body from top to bottom. After scrubbing each board, twist the towel dry and put it into the bucket to avoid getting dirty. The bottom of the car and the tires are the dirtiest, so it's good to scrub them finally. After all scrubbing is completed, wash off the soap residue with a bucket of water or hose, and then wipe it dry with a clean microfiber towel.
Remember, don't forget to scrub the door post and wheel arch, which are easy to accumulate dust.
After washing the car, protect the top coat with a better wax. Use a dry towel to apply appropriate car wax along the circular direction. During the application process, some parts may be blurred after drying. At this time, wipe them with another soft towel in the same way until the wax lines can't be seen clearly under the lacquer.
10. Wiper difficulty coefficient: ★☆☆☆☆
Different models have different sizes and accessories, so you need to choose accessories suitable for your own model. You can replace the rubber strip yourself, but it's not cost-effective, because you have to buy new rubber blades, so you have to replace them.
After turning off the wiper, gently lift it away from the windshield. The pole will rise and hold. Erect the wiper at 90 degrees so that the root clip can be reached.
The clips are mostly different, so check the assembly structure carefully before removing. Most of the wiper blades have a clip. Press it down to remove the wiper. As long as you hear a click, you can remove it.
Follow these steps in turn to press the new wiper. Finally, check the cleaning effect after placing the wiper.